The fall of Constantinople followed a 53-day siege that had begun on 6 April 1453. Almost 500 years of Turkish domination of the Eastern Mediterranean, North Africa and the Middle East would follow.
Robespierre was a French lawyer and politician, and one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror. Ironically, he fell victim to the Terror he helped instigate and was guillotined without trial in the Place de la Révolution on July 28, 1794.
Following a series of protests over taxes in the 1760s and 1770s, these thirteen colonies united politically and militarily in opposition to the British government and fought the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783). In July 1776, they formed a new nation called the "United States of America" and declared independence.
Marx collaborated with German thinker Friedrich Engels and published various works, the most well-known being the 1848 pamphlet The Communist Manifesto which summarized their theories about the nature of society and politics, that in their own words, "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles".
The Roman Catholic Church sees Peter as the first pope upon whom God chose to build His church, ordained by Jesus in the "Rock of My Church" dialogue in Matthew 16:18. It holds that he had authority (primacy) over the other apostles and maintains that sometime after the recorded events of the book of Acts, the Apostle Peter became the first bishop of Rome, and that the Roman bishop was accepted by the early church as the central authority among all of the churches.