According to Livy, the first 100 men appointed as senators by Romulus were referred to as "fathers", and the descendants of those men became the patrician class. Patricians were historically afforded more privileges than plebeians. Only patricians could hold political offices, and all priesthoods were closed to non-patricians. There was a belief that patricians communicated better with the Roman gods, so they alone could perform the sacred rites and take the auspices.
The samurai were usually associated with a clan and their lord, were trained as officers in military tactics and grand strategy, and they followed a set of rules that later came to be known as the bushidō. Their teachings can still be found today in modern Japanese martial arts.
In 1917, Sanger went to jail for distributing an early version of the diaphragm from a makeshift clinic in a tenement storefront in Brooklyn. Her conviction, when appealed, won an interpretation of New York law that allowed doctors -- though not nurses, as she intended -- to prescribe contraception for medical purposes. Under those constraints, she built the modern family planning movement.
The Romans used human urine to purge bacteria from the mouth. First-century Roman physicians maintained that brushing with urine whitened teeth and fixed them more firmly in the sockets. Upper-class Roman women paid dearly for bottled Portuguese urine, the most highly prized, since it was alleged to be the strongest on the Continent.
The Battle of Karánsebes was a friendly fire incident during the Austro-Turkish War of 1787-1791 that began as an argument over schnapps, but escalated by a series of mishaps into a great confusion in which Austrian troops fired at every shadow, thinking the Ottomans were everywhere, but in reality shooting fellow Austrian soldiers. Two days later, the Ottoman army arrived, discovered 10,000 dead and wounded soldiers and easily took Karánsebes.
Space shuttle Challenger launched and landed nine times before breaking apart 73 seconds into its tenth mission, STS-51-L, on January 28, 1986, resulting in the death of all seven crew members, including civilian school teacher Christa McAuliffe.
On August 19, 1981, Ronald Reagan -- who had pledged during his 1980 presidential campaign to appoint the first woman to the nation's highest court -- announced he would nominate Sandra Day O'Connor. She received unanimous Senate approval and served for 24 years.