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131) Who wrote the first algorithm intended to be carried out by a machine?

Ada Lovelace was an English mathematician and writer, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's early mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine. Her notes on the engine include what is recognised as the first algorithm intended to be carried out by a machine. As a result, she is often regarded as the first computer programmer.

132) When was the first fax machine invented?

During the 1840s, Scotsman Alexander Bain invented a primitive fax machine based on chemical technology. He used a clock to synchronise the movement of two pendulums for line-by-line scanning of a message. For transmission, Bain applied metal pins arranged on a cylinder made of insulating material. An electric probe that transmitted on-off pulses then scanned the pins. The message was reproduced at the receiving station on electrochemically sensitive paper.

133) Who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918 for the services he rendered to the advancement of physics by his discovery of energy quanta?

Max Planck made many contributions to theoretical physics, but his fame as a physicist rests primarily on his role as an originator of quantum theory, which revolutionized human understanding of atomic and subatomic processes.

134) What Kuiper belt object was recognized as a dwarf planet by the International Astronomical Union in July 2008?

Makemake was discovered in 2005 by Michael E. Brown and recognized as a dwarf planet by the IAU in 2008. Its name derives from the god of fertility in the mythology of the Rapa Nui people of Easter Island.

135) Who coined the term dark energy?

Michael S. Turner helped establish the interdisciplinary field that combines cosmology and elementary particle physics to understand the origin and evolution of the Universe. His research focuses on the earliest moments of creation, and he has made contributions to inflationary cosmology, particle dark matter and structure formation, the theory of big bang nucleosynthesis, and the nature of dark energy.

136) Who was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize in Physics?

Marie Curie won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903 with her husband, Pierre Curie, and Henri Becquerel. She also won a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1911.

137) What year was the fire extinguisher invented?

The first fire extinguisher of which there is any record was patented in England in 1723 by Ambrose Godfrey, a celebrated chemist at that time. It consisted of a cask of fire-extinguishing liquid containing a pewter chamber of gunpowder. This was connected with a system of fuses which were ignited, exploding the gunpowder and scattering the solution.

138) What theoretical physicist and cosmologist suffered from Lou Gehrig's Disease?

Hawking had a rare early-onset, slow-progressing form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), commonly known as motor neurone disease in the UK and as Lou Gehrig's Disease in the US.

139) What is the largest object in the asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter?

Ceres is the largest object in the asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. It is the 33rd-largest known body in the Solar System.

140) What cosmologist theorized the creation of the universe from quantum fluctuations?

Alexander Vilenkin introduced the idea of quantum creation of the universe from a quantum vacuum.