The idea of the atom was first introduced by Leucippus of Miletus around 450 B.C.. Leucippus and his pupil, Democritus, theorized that all matter was composed of atoms, or bits of matter too small to be seen. The word "atom" comes from a Greek word, "atomos", meaning uncuttable, because Leucippus believed that atoms were the building blocks of all materials and therefore could not be broken down any further.
In 2004, on the island of Flores in Indonesia, a team of Australian and Indonesian researchers discovered the remains of a hobbit-sized human, one that stood no more than a meter tall. Remarkable, these researchers determined that this new species of human lived as recently as 13,000 years ago, shattering the long-held belief that Homo sapiens have had the planet to themselves for the past 25,000 years.
The appearance of modern man about 100,000 years ago was marked by a decrease in body size at the same time as an increase in brain size. However, it is worth noting that Neanderthals, which became extinct about 40,000 years ago, had larger brains than modern Homo sapiens.